5G is the technology capable of enabling communications between the network and devices with higher performance than the previous standards, relying on the capillarity and diffusion of reception and connection devices. The peculiarities of 5G and its potential will play a role of fundamental importance in the daily life of citizens and for companies and public bodies: thanks to this standard, it will be possible, in fact, to develop innovative solutions for the use of the network, favoring the digital development of the Village. The European Commission of the 5G Action Plan highlighted that “public services can be an early adopter and a promoter of solutions based on 5G connectivity, encouraging the emergence of innovative services, contributing to a critical mass of investments and addressing issues that are important to society”. Taking into account the impact that 5G will have on citizens, it is foreseeable that the State will act as the client for the request for services to protect public spaces and the urban fabric. In short, for safety.
Currently, telecommunications networks are mostly based on narrowband terrestrial mobile wireless technologies such as TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio): these are networks with limited data capacity born to support mission-critical device-to-device communications. The request for access to applications and content in real-time, the use of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data systems, and, in addition, the extraction of data from detection systems of people and objects with the use of Augmented Reality allows for identifying areas of particular interest in terms of 5G and Public Safety. For example: to support law enforcement in terms of Search & Rescue, video surveillance, facial recognition, infrastructure and transport management, monitoring and tracking of IoT devices, and advanced security systems to predict cyber attacks; for the management of emergencies and disasters with a sophisticated warning, monitoring, prediction and simulation systems. 5G fits well into this scenario, capable of offering “natively” features that complement and substantially integrate the needs of mission-critical networks.
Thanks to multi-access edge computing, the ability to process data closer to the user, smart city and smart mobility applications will be enabled more securely and with lower latency .and with network slicing, the flagship of 5G technology, it will be possible to “cut out” virtual networks for Public Safety needs by prioritizing their traffic. As it spreads, 5G will allow the integration of further technologies, above all the Blockchain. In fact, in 5G and IoT ecosystems, in order to control and coordinate operational flows, the use of this technology will be required, and its full potential will be exploited. In emergency situations, for example, there is a need for multiple entities authorized to access IoT infrastructures, even on the move, to control public notifications. Blockchain / DLT technologies can authenticate access from competent authorities (Police and Carabinieri forces, Civil Protection, etc.) to remote control and device monitoring services.
The role of AI
Artificial intelligence will play a particular role, which has great support capabilities for public safety services, especially for the analysis and learning of geolocation data provided by sensors, offering accurate forecasts that elevate the safety and well-being of citizens by reducing costs. AI offers an indispensable contribution to monitoring the health of buildings, bridges, and buildings, in the prevention and management of disasters, and in the surveillance of people and territories.
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